Myths and Facts About Gaza

By Abdelrahman Rashdan
Political Science Researcher

Editor’s Note: Amid the current Israeli violent escalation against Gaza, OnIslam.net highlights this updated 2008 FAQ piece that discusses some essential background information and common misconceptions about the besieged strip.
"One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter." (Reuters Photo)
Myths and Facts About Gaza

Face-covering scarf, gun, stone, fence, rocket … these may construct the typical perception in the minds of many when it comes to Gaza; yet, what exactly is myth and what are the realities about the humanitarian and militant turbulence in the Gaza Strip.

Are Gazans no more than a militant group shooting rockets at civilians in Israel? How did it all start, and where is the situation now heading?  

1. Is Hamas a terrorist organization?

2.  Was Hamas' takeover of Gaza justified?

3.  Does Hamas have a complete control over Gaza?

4.  Are Gazans held hostage in the hands of Hamas?

5.  Are all Gazans Hamas members?

6.  Is Hamas accepting no peace deals with Israel?

7.  Why isn't there an agreement between Hamas and Fateh?

8.  Who represents the Palestinian people now?

9.  How human are Gazans?

10.  What is the humanitarian situation in Gaza?

11.  Does Israel have the right to attack Gazans to protect itself?

12.  Is the current siege effective in halting the missile attacks over Israelis?  


1. Is Hamas a terrorist organization?

Until today, there is no agreed upon definition for terrorism that groups and actions can be measured upon. Thus, the label "terrorist" can easily be abused for political gains and interests.

The famous quotes: "One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter" can apply here perfectly. Although 62 percent of Palestinians held a favorable view of Hamas in 2007, as the Pew Global Attitude Survey found, and that Hamas was democratically elected for parliament in 2006, it has been listed by Canada, Israel, Japan, and the US as a "terrorist" organization.

In an interview with the Der Spiegel, Khaled Meshaal, Hamas' political leader, affirmed, "we are a national resistance movement, not a terrorist organization. We have the right to resist the occupation."

Mahmoud al-Zahar, a prominent Hamas leader, wrote in the Washington Post in 2008, "our movement fights on because we cannot allow the foundational crime at the core of the Jewish state — the violent expulsion from our lands and villages that made us refugees — to slip out of world consciousness, forgotten or negotiated away."


2.  Was Hamas' takeover of Gaza justified?

To the surprise of Fateh and international observers, Hamas was able to secure the majority of votes in the first elections for the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) since 1996. Accordingly, Hamas was legally asked to form the majority government and rule over Gaza and the West Bank. However, since its victory in January 2006 till mid-2007, the internal scene was not stable with confrontations between Hams and Fateh movements. In addition, international pressure played on the side of Fateh to alienate the democratically-elected members of Hamas, which is considered as a terrorist organization by the US, Israel, Japan, and Canada.

Among the main reasons that helped in the failure of the anticipated unity government was the international attitude.

Sanctions were imposed and foreign aid was held away from the Palestinians, who depend mainly on it, by the main donors — the US, EU, and several Western states.

In February 2007 the Saudi government spent significant efforts to unite the Palestinian factions under one government in order to end the sectarian division. Ministerial posts were distributed among the different factions and a Palestinian national unity government was on its way to succeed. However, among the main reasons that helped in the failure of the anticipated unity government was the international attitude. The US announced its boycotting of the Hamas members in such government, Israel did not recognize it, and the EU hanged its position on the new government's actions.

Clashes erupted once again and Hamas took over control of Gaza. Legally, the government in Gaza is not considered a legitimate one, nor the one in the West Bank — emergency government — formed by Fateh, according to Dr. Ahmed Mubarak Al-Khaldi, the former Minister of Justice of the Palestinian National Authority.


3. Does Hamas has a complete control over Gaza?

A 2008 report by the International Crisis Group found that the Hamas has almost a complete monopoly over the use of force and political activity in the Gaza Strip, which has considered a fact since then. Hamas has also been able to refashion the legal and legislative systems and now "enjoys freer rein to shape society through management of the health, education, and religious sectors," the report stated.

Within little time after seizing control over Gaza in June 2007, Hamas was able to fill in the gaps left behind as a result of the absence of Fateh in the Strip; its mission was to defend Gaza from internal and external threats.


4. Are Gazans held hostage in the hands of Hamas?

Hamas supporters take part in a protest calling on Egypt to reopen the Rafah border crossing, near the Egyptian border with the Gaza Strip, Apr. 25, 2008. (Reuters Photo)
Analyzing the current situation, it is very clear that the 1.5 million Gazans along with Hamas are held hostage by external forces through the complete control of the borders mainly by Egypt and Israel. The 365-square-kilometer Gaza strip is bounded by the Mediterranean sea from the north, state of Israel from the east, and Egypt from the west. Such geographical characteristics of the Gaza strip make it more or less the "world's largest open-air prison" with multi-party prisoners.

Every now and then, Egyptian-Israeli negotiations — or unilateral action — allow some injured victims to pass out of Gaza, yet other vital humanitarian needs are held in many times from getting inside the strip.

The Gaza-Egypt borders were breached by Gazans with the help of the Hamas forces in January 2008 and hundreds of thousands of Gazans poured into Sinai, Egypt to buy consumer goods; ten days later, the borders were sealed with less hopes for an agreement that would release Gazans out of their prison. Between 2011 and 2013, as a result Egypt’s January 25th revolution that ousted the Muabrak regime, the Egyptian government decided to relatively ease the siege allowing less restrictions on the movements of goods and Gazans in and out of the besieged strip.


5. Are all Gazans Hamas members?

In April 2008, some Israeli reports estimated the number of the Hamas forces in Gaza to be up to 20,000 armed men, nearly half of them from in Hamas' military arm, Izz-Eddin Al-Kassam group; such claims were refuted by Sami Abou-Zuhri, the spokesman of Hamas in the Gaza Strip.

Besides the estimates of the Hamas armed members, the number of civilian sympathizers is way far from estimation. It is important to mention that Hamas is originally a social/political movement and not a militia; along with several branches and arms, Hamas has its military wing Izz-Eddin Al-Kassam.

In 2004, 300,000 Palestinians marched in the funeral of Abdel-Aziz Al-Rantisi — who was Hamas' leader in Gaza.

According to a 2014 survey by the Pew Global Attitude Project, 35 percent of Palestinians living in Gaza hold favorable view of Hamas. Hence, it would be fallacious to say that all Palestinians in Gaza are Hamas members, or include those sympathizing with the resistance movement in the members' count. Out of the 1.5 million Palestinian in Gaza, very minute percentage are actual members in Hamas.


6. Is Hamas accepting no peace deals with Israel?

"A 'peace process' with Palestinians cannot take even its first tiny step until Israel first withdraws to the borders of 1967; dismantles all settlements; removes all soldiers from Gaza and the West Bank; repudiates its illegal annexation of Jerusalem; releases all prisoners; and ends its blockade of our international borders, our coastline and our airspace permanently," Mahmoud al-Zahar, a prominent Hamas leader, made it clear in a Washington Post opinion piece.

In a live chat session with OnIslam.net's readers, Dr. Ahmed Bahr — the first deputy for the head of the Palestinian Legislative Council and the former head of the council in Gaza — said in response to a question about Hamas' willingness to negotiate with Israel, "there are the five Nos that they announce and consider as strategies; No for the establishment of the Palestinian state on the 1967 boarders, No for Jerusalem as the capital of the Palestinian state, No for the return of refugees, No for the stop of the wall and the settlements, No for the release of prisoners ... So what shall we negotiate about with the Israelis?" After the efforts exerted by the former US President Jimmy Carter, Carter said that Hamas told him that "they would accept a Palestinian state on the 1967 borders if approved by Palestinians ... even though Hamas might disagree with some terms of the agreement."


7. Why isn't there an agreement between Hamas and Fateh?

Currently, Fateh controls the West Bank and is led by President Mahmoud Abbas, and Hamas is controlling the Gaza Strip and so far no efforts have been successful in reuniting them.
Several failing attempts have been conducted to bring along a unity government that would solve the Gaza-West Bank division. Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and other parties were faced with the conditions that the two parties, Hamas and Fateh, place ahead of negotiations.

Fateh, currently controlling the West Bank and led by President Mahmoud Abbas, condition negotiations with Hamas on the return of Gaza under the former's rule, while Hamas desires negotiations with Fateh while keeping the status-quo as is.

Occationally and in the midst of the mediation efforts, tensions rise on both sides as a result of the several provocative announcements by leaders and media stations. Imprisonment of the other's group members also contributed much to entangling the agreements' efforts.

The closest the negotiations came to a final agreement was in early June 2014 when a national consensus government was formed, which was paving the way towards the election of a new president and parliament. Israel, however, announed that it would not negotiate any peace deal with the newly formed government and would push punitive measures. About a month later Israel launched its "Protective Edge" offensive military attack against Gaza.


8. Who represents the Palestinian people now?

With 1.5 million in Gaza and 2.5 million in the West Bank, Hamas was chosen democratically to represent Palestinians in the 2006 Parliamentary elections. Hamas was able to secure for itself more than the minimum required 50 percent of seats in a 78 percent-turn-out-election that was described as fair and clean by observers. 

However, that does not give Hamas the full legitimacy to speak for Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank, especially after the division of powers between the two territories.

Currently, President Mahmoud Abbas (leading Fateh figure) holds on to that role; he did it in the Annapolis Conference 2007 despite Hamas' firm rejection of him representing the will of all Palestinians.

One main resolution that former President Jimmy Carter was able to achieve in his April 2008 visit to the Middle East was that Hamas agreed to pass over the representation of Palestinians to President Abbas to be able to negotiate a peace agreement with Israel; Hamas' decision was conditioned on the approval of the majority of Palestinians to negotiate a 1967 Palestinian state through a mass referendum.


9. How human are Gazans?

Bodies of four children and their mother arrive at Al-Awda mosque after Israeli fire hit their house in the northern Gaza Strip, Apr. 28, 2008. (Reuters Photo)
Hitler dehumanized Jews to be able to commit his genocide, and now Palestinians, especially Gazans, are being more and more deprived of their basic human rights, which is pushing them into a bigger "shoah" or Holocaust, as described by Israel's deputy defense minister Matan Vilnai on Army Radio on Friday, February 29, 2008.  

Besides the mounting death toll of the direct Israeli attacks on civilians in Gaza, by 2008, 136 Palestinian patients died for not being allowed by the Israeli forces to leave Gaza to get treatment outside. "The right to health appears to be optional for Palestinians," Ambrogio Manenti, the head of the WHO's West Bank and Gaza office, told a press conference in April 2008.

In the period between February 28 and March 2, 2008, 104 Palestinians were murdered and 215 injured by the Israeli forces in comparison to only 3 Israelis deaths and 27 injuries for the same period of time, according to an  April 18  UN Report. Moreover, Israel's 2008-2009 Operation Cast Lead left over one thousand Palestinian deaths while around ten Israelis were killed. In 2012, Israel's attack on Gaza, which it named Operation Pillars of Defense, left 103 civilians dead, 30 of which were children. Recently, in 2014, more than one thousand Palestinians have been killed by Israeli forces' attack on Gaza, called Operation Protective Edge, with about 25 percent of them being childern, according to the UNICEF.

Children are usually part of the victims of the bigger "shoah." Ra'd Abu Saif narrates the last moments of his 12-year-old daughter Safa after she was shot by an Israeli sniper: "I put my hand on her chest to stop the streaming blood. She told me that she could not breathe, her body trembled and she closed her eyes."

Safa was shot in the left side of her chest while she was inside her home in Jabaliya, northern Gaza. An ambulance tried to reach her but Israeli soldiers opened fire at it, wounding a paramedic and causing the tires to lose air, and so she bled to death three hours after she was wounded.

"Dad, I cannot breathe, all of you leave me please, let me breathe, enough, enough," were Safa's last words.

Speaking numbers, Hamas in the Gaza strip also carries on regular missile attacks on southern Israel, yet between 2001 and 2014, the less advanced rockets killed 31 Israeli civilians.


10. What is the humanitarian situation in Gaza?

In 2014, with the blockade reaching its seventh year, about 80 percent of Gaza's 1.7 million resident, are dependent on international aid, as opposed to 63 percent in 2006. Unemployment is close to 40 percent and daily power-cut is between 12-16 hours because of the sever fuel shortage, which directly affects hospitals, schools, businesses, according to Oxfam International.

The situation in the Gaza Strip "is worse now than it has ever been since the start of the Israeli military occupation in 1967. The current situation in Gaza is man-made, completely avoidable and, with the necessary political will, can also be reversed," according to a 2008 report — entitled: "The Gaza Strip: A Humanitarian Implosion" — released in March 2008 by a coalition of Human Rights organization.

The fuel shortage in Gaza directly affacts services that include education and health care. Schools' capacities go down because of the lack of the means to transport students to their schools and colleges.

In addition, as a direct result of the destruction of schools through the Israeli attacks on Gaza, some schools were forced to operate on double-shift system. In 2011, for example, 94 of UNRWA schools and 78 of the government schools were forced to adopt the double-shift system which reduced classroom time to almost a third and still there was a serious overcrowding existing in classrooms, according to Al-Mezan Center for Human Rights. The UNRWA also reported in February 2009 that about 200,000 students had only 40 percent of the total number of school books they required due to paper and glue being banned from entering.


11. Does Israel have the right to attack Gazans to protect itself?

As mentioned before, by no means are all Gazans Hamas members; those involved in rocket launching belong mainly to the military wing of Hamas that is at most 10,000 men, according to some Israeli sources.

Israeli raids on Gaza, claimed to be directed at rocket launchers, leave children, women, and elders dead with almost no noticeable affect on the frequency of rockets launching on Israel.

Collective punishment, including siege and raids, that does not differentiate between civilians and militants are clearly against international law and the Fourth Geneva Convention.

Israel's early raids in Gaza were described by the UN as war crimes. "It violates one of the basic principles of international humanitarian law that military action must distinguish between military and civilian targets," John Dugard, UN special rapporteur on the human rights situation in the occupied territories, said.


12. Is the current siege effective in halting the missile attacks over Israelis?

Before using siege as a strategy to halt the rocket firing on the Israeli areas near the Gaza boarders, Israel was implementing direct air strikes on the areas where rocket-launchers were believed to be hiding. The older policy proved its failure and Israel was forced to find some new effective tactics to control Hamas.

Of the main indications of Israel's failure in the old tactics was the fact that strikes were increasingly killing civilians, which led to the rising sympathy with Hamas and resistance in general among Palestinians. Under the siege strategy, figures still show the popularity for Hamas; plus, rockets are still being launched towards Israel. In fact, Hamas has been able to develop more advanced operations and rockets that drove the confrontation inside Israel.

On April 19, 2008, Hamas underwent an operation near the southern end of Gaza injuring 13 Israeli soldiers. "This is a far more complex attack than the incident in which Cpl. Gilad Shalit was captured," said an Israeli spokesman, referring to a soldier captured in June 2006 by Palestinian fighters in a cross-border raid to use him as a bargaining chip to free Palestinian prisoners held by Israel.

It seems that the only way out is for Israel to start talking to Hamas.

Yossi Sarid wrote in Haaretz, "The losses on the Palestinian side, mostly innocent civilians, will only increase solidarity and the willingness to sacrifice. Hamas rule will not be weakened; it certainly will not fall ... There is no choice but to talk to Hamas, indirectly or directly, and without preconditions. On the agenda: a cessation of hostilities and a total, long-term halt."


In conclusion to his 2008 visit to the Middle East, Carter, the architect of the 1979 Egypt-Israel peace treaty, said, excluding Hamas "is just not working."

Related Links:
Gaza: A Human Tragedy Under Siege
IUMS Statement on the Zionist Massacre in Gaza
Gaza Awaits Reconstruction of War-Torn Homes
Abdelrahman Rashdan is a political science researcher and commentator specialized in national security and the Middle East.

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