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The Opening of Makkah

In the Company of the Beloved Prophet (P. 6)
makkah

The eighth year after Hijrah witnessed numerous great events. Below are some of them:

1-     The first combat between Muslims and Romans in the battle of Mu’tah: In this battle, Zayd Ibn Harithah, Ja`far Ibn Abi Talib and `Abdullah Ibn Rawahah were martyred; and Khalid Ibn Al-Walid led the army and could successfully return to Madinah.

2- The opening (fat-h) of Makkah: Quraish violated the conditions of the treaty of Al-Hudaibiyah. As a result, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) decided to conquer Makkah. Therefore, he marched with ten thousand men and conquered it without war. He forgave the people of Makkah, saying, “Go your way, for you are free.”

3-     The Battle of Hunain: In this battle, the great numbers of Muslims elated them. Because of this spirit of elation, Muslims were about to be defeated, but Allah supported His Messenger and brought victory to him. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) started shouting, I am the Prophet undoubtedly: I am the son of `Abdul-Muttalib. Among Muslims who protected the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), Umm Salim who carried her dagger to defend the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) while she was pregnant with her son `Abdullah.

4-     The death of Ibrahim, the son of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), took place during that year.

 

The Ninth Year after Hijrah

Below are some of the great events that took place in that year:

1-     People embraced Islam in large crowds and, according to the superior view of the Muslim scholars, the Christians of Najran were amongst them.

2-     The Battle of Tabuk: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) marched with seventy thousand men to fight Romans in Syria. Many Romans made peace with the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and paid him the tribute (Jizyah). In this battle, many hypocrites remained behind in Madinah and did not go with the Muslim army due to the difficult nature of this battle: the heat was oppressive, there was a drought, fruit was ripe, and the men, therefore, wanted to stay in the shade with their fruit and disliked traveling in that season. Among those who remained behind in Madinah were three believers – Ka`b Ibn Malik, Murarah Ibn Ar-Rabi`, and Hilal Ibn Umayyah - who repented and Almighty Allah accepted their repentance.

3-     Negus, the king of Abyssinia, died, so the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) performed Salat Al-Gha’ib[1] for him.

4-     The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered Abu Bakr to lead Muslims in performing the rituals of Pilgrimage. After their departure, the opening passage of Surat At-Tawbah was revealed; and `Ali, therefore, was entrusted to deliver it to the pilgrims.

 

The Tenth Year after Hijrah

Like the aforementioned years, this year witnessed a lot of great events. Following are some of them:

While the Prophet was on his deathbed, he instructed Muslims, saying, “(Persist in performing) prayer and (treat) your slaves (kindly).”

1-     The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) performed the Farewell Pilgrimage with all his wives and many Muslims. During this pilgrimage, Allah, the Almighty, revealed:  (“This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.”) (Al-Ma’idah: 3) Also, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) instructed them regarding the prohibition of shedding others’ blood with no right, defaming their honor and taking their property through illegal means. He (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) explained to them the rites of pilgrimage.

2- The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) started to mobilize a great army under the command of Usamah Ibn Zayd to go forth to Syria. Yet, illness overwhelmed the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who asked permission from his wives to stay with `A'ishah. On Monday, the twelfth of Rabi' Al-Awal, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) passed away after he faithfully delivered the Message. It is noteworthy that he (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was given the choice to live eternally or to die. Thereupon, he (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) chose the latter so as to meet Allah, Most High. While the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was on his deathbed, he instructed Muslims, saying, “(Persist in performing) prayer and (treat) your slaves (kindly).” The Prophet's death caused a great grief to Muslims.

 

 

Physical Description of the Prophet

The face of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was white and mixed with a reddish tan, bright and round. He had black and wide eyes and there was a reddish color in the white area in his eyes. His eyebrows were thick though long. He had a large forehead and thick beard.  He was neither excessively tall nor extremely short. Whoever saw him from a distance would fear him, and whoever accompanied him would certainly love him. He had some gray hairs on his beard. Anas said: “I have never smelt ambergris nor musk nor any other thing better than the smell of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).”

He was intelligent and accurate and eloquent speaker. He never praised nor criticized any food.



[1] It means performing a funeral prayer for an absent dead person.

Related Links:
Lessons from the Battle of Uhud
Prophet's Endurance and Migration to Madinah
In the Company of the Beloved Prophet (P. 1)
The Prophet’s Life in Brief
A prominent Muslim scholar and da`iyah.

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